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Archive for the 'Bit Bucket' Category

How Many Bits in a Track? Revisiting Basic Assumptions

Yesterday’s post contained lots of details about Apple II copy-protection and the minutiae of 5.25 inch floppy disk data recording. It mentions that bits are recorded on the disk at a rate of 4 µs per bit. This is well-known, and 4 µs/bit appears all over the web in every discussion of Apple II disks. This number underpins everything the Floppy Emu does involving disk emulation, and has been part of its design since the beginning. But as I learned today, it’s wrong.

Sure, the rate is close to 4 µs per bit, close enough that disk emulation still works fine. But it’s not exactly right. The exact number is 4 clock cycles of the Apple II’s 6502 CPU per bit. With a CPU speed of 1.023 MHz, that works out to 3.91 µs per bit. That’s only a two percent difference compared with 4 µs, but it explains some of the behavior I was seeing while examining copy-protected Apple II games.

With the disk spinning at 300 RPM, it’s making one rotation every 200 milliseconds. 4 µs per bit would result in 50000 bits per track, assuming a disk is written using normal hardware with a correctly calibrated disk drive. 50000 is also the number of bits per track given in the well-known book Beneath Apple DOS. But it’s wrong. At 3.91 µs per bit, standard hardware will write 51150 bits per track.

Not content to trust any references at this point, I measured the number directly using a logic analyzer and a real Apple IIe and Apple IIgs. When writing to the disk, both systems used a rate of about 3.92 µs per bit. Here’s a screen capture from a test run with the Apple IIe, showing the time for 10 consecutive bits at 39.252 µs. There was some jitter of about 50 nanoseconds in the measurements, and measuring longer spans of bits revealed an average bit rate of about 3.9205 µs. That’s a tiny difference versus 3.91 µs. Can I say it’s close enough, and let it go? Of course not.

The Apple II’s CPU clock is actually precisely 4/14ths the speed of the NTSC standard color-burst frequency of 3.579545 MHz. (This number can be derived as 30 frames/sec times 525 lines/frame times 455/2 cycles/line divided by a correction factor of 1.001.) 3.579545 MHz times 4 divided by 14 is 1.02272714 MHz. Rounded to three decimal places that gives the advertised CPU speed of 1.023 MHz. But using the exact CPU frequency, four clock cycles should be 3.91111 µs. I can’t explain the remaining discrepancy of roughly 0.01 µs compared with my measurements, but I’ll chalk it up to measurement error.

But wait! In the comments to the answer to this Stack Exchange question, it’s mentioned that every 65th clock cycle of the Apple II is 1/7th longer than the others, because of weird reasons. That means the effective CPU speed is slower than I calculated by a factor of 1/(65*7). In light of this, I calculate a new average CPU speed of precisely 1.020479520466562 MHz, and a time for four clock cycles of about 3.9197 µs. That’s a difference of only 0.0008 µs from my measurement – less than one nanosecond. Ah ha! So everything makes sense, and my measurements were correct.

The difference between 4 µs per bit and 3.92 may seem like a minor detail, but for a floppy disk emulator developer, it’s like suddenly discovering that the value of pi is not 3.14159 but 3.2. My mind is blown.

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Windows 10 External Video Crashes Part 6 – Conclusion

For most of 2019 I was going crazy trying to solve unexplained problems with Windows 10 external video on my HP EliteBook x360 1030 G2 laptop. I bought the computer last May, with the idea to use it primarily as a desktop replacement. But when I connected an ASUS PB258Q 2560 x 1440 external monitor, I was plagued by mysterious intermittent crashes that slowly drove me insane. For the previous chapters of this story, see part 1, part 2, part 3, part 4, and part 5.

The computer worked OK during normal use, but problems appeared every couple of days, after a few hours of idle time or overnight. I experienced random crashes in the Intel integrated graphics driver igdkmd64.sys, though these stopped after upgrading the driver. The computer periodically locked up with a blank screen and fans running 100%. The Start menu sometimes wouldn’t open. Sometimes the Windows toolbar disappeared. Sometimes I’d return to the computer to find the Chrome window resized to a tiny size.

The crowning moment was the day I woke from the computer from sleep, and was greeted with the truly bizarre video scaling shown in the photo above. The whole image was also inset on the monitor, with giant black borders all around.

These might sound like a random collection of symptoms, or like a software driver problem, or maybe a typical problem with bad RAM or other hardware. But after pretty exhaustive testing and analysis (did I mention this is part 6 of this series), I became convinced the problem was somehow related to the external video. The problems only occurred when connected to external video, and when the external video resolution was 2560 x 1440.

I tried different cables. I tried both HDMI and DisplayPort. I tried RAM tests, driver updates, and firmware updates. I tried what seemed like a million different work-arounds. And I tried just living with it, but it was maddening.

Out With the Old

After seven months of this troubleshooting odyssey, in late December I finally gave up and replaced the whole computer. I purchased a Dell desktop, which is probably what I should have done in the first place. My original idea of using the laptop mostly as a desktop seemed attractive, but in actual practice I never made use of the laptop’s mobility. It functioned 100% as a desktop, except it was more expensive than a desktop, with a slower CPU than a comparable desktop, and with more problems than a desktop. For example, the external keyboard and monitor didn’t work reliably in the BIOS menu – I had to open the laptop and use the built-in keyboard and display. Waking the computer from sleep with the external keyboard was also iffy. I eventually concluded that a “desktop replacement” laptop isn’t really as good as a real desktop computer.

I’m happy to report that the new Dell desktop has been working smoothly with the ASUS PB258Q 2560 x 1440 monitor for five months. But what’s more surprising is that the EliteBook laptop has also been working smoothly. My wife inherited the EliteBook, and she’s been using it daily without any problems. She often uses it with an external monitor too, although it’s a different one than the PB258Q monitor I was using. No troubles at all – everything is great.

So in the end, everything’s working, but the problem wasn’t truly solved. Can I make any educated guesses what went wrong?

All the evidence points to some kind of incompatibility between the PB258Q’s 2560 x 1440 resolution and the EliteBook x360 1030 G2. Other monitors didn’t exhibit the problem, and other video resolutions on the same monitor didn’t exhibit the problem either. I believe the external video was periodically disconnecting or entering a bad state, causing the computer to become confused about what monitors were connected and what their resolutions were. This caused errors for the Start menu, toolbar, and applications, and sometimes caused the computer to freeze or crash. Was it a hardware problem with the EliteBook, a Windows driver problem, or maybe even a hardware problem with the ASUS monitor? With a large enough budget for more hardware testing, I might have eventually found the answer. For now I’m just happy the problem is gone.

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Building a 12V DC MagSafe Charger

Now that I have a solar-powered 12V battery, how can I charge my laptop from it? An inverter would seem absurdly inefficient, converting from 12V DC to 110V AC just so I can connect my Apple charger and convert back to DC. It would work, but surely there’s some way to skip the cumbersome inverter and charge a MacBook Pro directly from DC?

Newer Macs feature USB Type C power delivery, a common standard with readily available 12V DC chargers designed for automotive use. But my mid-2014 MBP uses Apple’s proprietary MagSafe 2 charging connector. In their infinite wisdom, Apple has never built a 12V DC automotive MagSafe 2 charger – only AC wall chargers. There are some questionable-looking 3rd-party solutions available, but I’d rather build my own.

Step 1: Cut the cord off a MagSafe 2 AC wall charger. Yes that’s right. Being a proprietary connector, there’s no other source for the MagSafe 2. Fortunately I already had an old charger with a cracked and frayed cable that I could use as a donor. Snip!

The choice of AC wall charger matters more than you might expect. Inside the MagSafe 2 connector is a tiny chip that identifies the charger type and its maximum output power. The Mac’s internal charging circuitry won’t exceed this charging power, no matter what the capabilities of the power supply at the other end of the cable. Pretty sneaky, Apple! Official MagSafe 2 chargers come in three varieties of 45W, 65W, and 85W. My donor MagSafe 2 has the 85W id chip inside, so I can charge at the fastest possible rate.

After cutting the charger cable, inside I found another insulated wire which I assumed to be the positive supply, surrounded by a shroud of fine bare wires which I assumed to be the ground connection. I’m not sure why Apple designed the cable this way, instead of with two separate insulated wires for power and ground. The braid of fine bare wires was awkward to work with, but I eventually managed to separate it and twist it into something like a normal wire. I soldered the power and ground wires to an XT60 connector and covered them with electrical tape and heat shrink. I also repaired the cracked and frayed cable sections.

Step 2: Get a DC-to-DC boost regulator. The input should be 12V, with a few volts of margin above and below. But what about the output? What’s the voltage of a MagSafe 2 charger? My donor charger says 4.25A 20V, but I couldn’t find any 12V-to-20V fixed voltage boost regulators. Happily I think anything roughly in the 15-20V range will work. For comparison, I have a 45W Apple charger that outputs 14.85V and a 3rd-party MagSafe 2 charger that outputs 16.5V. I chose this 12V-to-19V boost regulator with a maximum output power of 114W. At 85W, I’ll be pushing it to about 75% of maximum.

Step 3: The moment of truth. Would my expensive computer burst into flames when I connected this jury-rigged DC MagSafe charger? I held my breath, plugged in the cable, and… success! Of course it worked. The orange/green indicator LED on the MagSafe 2 connector worked too.

Opening the Mac’s System Information utility and viewing the Power tab, I could see that my charger was correctly recognized and working. The “Amperage” status also showed the battery was charging at a rate of 1737 mA (positive numbers here indicate charging, and negative numbers discharging). This seemed low – with the battery at 12.2V, that implied it was charging at roughly 21W instead of 85W. But when I connected an AC wall charger in place of my DC charger, the charging rate was almost identical. Because my battery was almost 100% charged, I think the charging rate was intentionally reduced. I’ll check again later when my battery is closer to 0%.

Goodbye, inverter. With just a few hours of work, I had a functioning 12V DC MagSafe 2 charger. Time to sit back, enjoy a beer, and celebrate victory.

Checking the Numbers

I like numbers. Do you like numbers? Here are some numbers.

This charging method is about 95% efficient, according to the claimed efficiency rating of the boost regulator. I can also leave the regulator permanently connected, since its no-load current is less than 20 mA. In comparison, charging with an inverter and an AC wall charger is about 77% efficient (85% for the inverter times 90% for the wall charger). And an inverter probably can’t be left permanently connected, since it has a constant draw of several watts even when no appliances are plugged in.

My “12V battery” is actually a Suaoki portable power station with a 150 Wh battery capacity. How many times can I recharge my MacBook Pro from this? Checking the Mac’s System Information data, I infer it has a 3S lithium battery with an 11.1V nominal voltage. System Information says the battery’s fully-charged capacity is 5182 mAh (which means my battery is old and tired), so that’s 57.5 Wh. A bit of web searching reveals that a fresh battery should have a capacity of 71.8 Wh. That means I should be able to recharge my MBP from 0% up to 100% twice, before exhausting the Suaoki’s 150 Wh battery.

Is the charging current over-taxing the Suaoki? How much current am I actually drawing from it? 85W of output power with 95% efficiency implies about 89.5W of input power to the boost regulator. At 12V that would be roughly 7.5A drawn from the Suaoki battery. But the Suaoki’s lithium battery falls to about 9V before it’s dead, and at 9V it would take 10A to reach the same number of watts. The Suaoki’s 12V outputs are rated “12V/10A, Max 15A in total”, so in the worst case I’d be running right up to the maximum.

What happens if I charge my MacBook and charge a couple of phones from the Suaoki’s USB ports at the same time? Would this be too much? I wouldn’t be exceeding the maximum rating of the USB ports, and (probably) wouldn’t be exceeding the maximum rating of the 12V ports, but the combination might be too much. At 85W for the MacBook, and maybe 10-20W each for two phones, the worst-case total could be as much as 125W. The Suaoki manual says “the rated input power of your devices should be no more than 100W”, but I think this refers to the AC inverter, not the system as a whole. Powering 125 watts from a 150 Wh battery is a discharge rate under 1C, which seems quite reasonable for a lithium battery. It’s probably OK. Now, back to charging!

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Residential Solar Power and the Duck Curve

Sometimes you can have too much of a good thing. Take a look at the growth of residential roof-top solar power in California. For individual customers who are blessed with sunny weather, installing solar panels can be a smart financial decision and a great way to escape the region’s high electricity prices. But for the utility companies and for the region as a whole, the results may not be what you’d expect. On sunny California afternoons, the state’s wholesale electric prices can actually turn negative. There’s a glut of electric generation, supply exceeds demand, but all that electricity has to go somewhere. So factories are literally paid to use electricity.

Negative Electricity Prices

What is going on here? It’s important to understand that all electric usage must be matched with electric generation occurring at the same moment. Aside from a few small-scale systems, there’s no energy storage capability on the grid. If customers are using 5 gigawatts, then there needs to be 5 gigawatts of total generation from power plants at that same time. If there’s not enough generation, you get brownouts. And if there’s too much generation, you either get over-voltage or over-frequency, damaged equipment, fires, and other badness.

Maintaining this balance is difficult. Electric demand is constantly changing, but it’s not so easy to switch a gas-fired power plant on and off. There’s some ability to adjust output, but it’s not perfect. For most residential solar installations, the utility company is obligated to buy any excess electric generation, whether they need it or not. There’s no way for the utility company to tell you “thanks but we already have enough power right now, please disconnect your solar panels”. So what happens when there’s too much electricity? You pay somebody to take it.

The challenge is illustrated by something called the duck curve, so-named because the graph supposedly looks like a duck. This curve shows the hour-by-hour net electricity demand for California, after excluding solar power. As the day starts, net demand is about 19 GW. Then around 8:00 AM, the sun rises high enough above horizon obstructions and solar power begins to flood the grid. Net demand from gas and coal power plants drops hard. Then around 6:00 PM the trend reverses. As the sun is setting, solar power generation declines to zero while everyone switches on lights and air conditioning. Net demand skyrockets, creating a huge demand wall peaking about 26 GW at 8:00 PM. It’s enough to make any grid operator swoon.

Every year, this problem gets worse as more and more residential customers install solar panels. This trouble is likely to grow even faster now due to California’s new first-of-its-kind solar mandate. As of January 1st 2020, the state requires that all newly-constructed homes have a solar photovoltaic system. Expect the duck curve to quack even more than before.

It’s not hard to understand why grid operators view residential solar as a mixed blessing. During the day it provides cheap clean electricity, and that’s a good thing. Gas and coal plants can be idled, saving fuel and reducing emissions. But solar power can’t eliminate those gas and coal plants entirely – they’re still critically important for evenings and night. So during the day many of those plants are just sitting there doing nothing. The power plants still need to be built, and staffed, and maintained, even if they’re only in use half the time.

Grid-Scale Energy Storage

Given the daytime production of solar power, there’s no amount of solar that could ever replace 100% of the state’s energy needs. By itself, it will never enable us to get rid of all those gas and coal power plants. That’s a big problem – a huge problem if you care about the long term and the environment. If you’re a young engineer casting about for a field in which to make your career, I believe you could do very well dedicating your career to solving this challenge.

The answer of course is energy storage. What’s needed is a way to take the dozens of GWh of solar power generated between 8:00 AM and 6:00 PM, and spread it out evenly across a 24 hour period. But how?

You might be thinking of solutions like the Tesla Powerwall, or similar home-based battery storage systems. The Powerwall 2 is a very cool device that can store 13.5 kWh. You can use it to store excess power generated by your solar panels during the day, and drain it at night to run your lights and appliances, helping to smooth out the duck curve.

But the Powerwall is too small and too expensive to really make economic sense. 13.5 kWh is not enough to get a typical home through the night, and the hardware costs about $13000 installed with a 10-year lifetime. You’d need to achieve massive cost savings for the Powerwall to pay for itself during those 10 years. It’s good for the utilities, and if every residential solar customer had a Powerwall, it would go a long way towards smoothing the duck curve and eliminating many of those gas and coal power plants. But it’s probably not a good value for you, the individual residential customer.

Image from

Looking at the whole system, what’s really needed is grid-scale energy storage. Instead of individual customers storing a few tens of kWh with batteries, we need industrial-scale systems storing many MWh or GWh by pumping millions of gallons of water uphill or with other storage techniques. These are big engineering projects, and some effort has already been made in this direction, but it’s still early days. Aside from massive battery arrays and pumping water uphill, other options include heating water and storing compressed air underground. Nothing works very well yet, but watch this space. The world needs this.

TLDR: It matters not only how much clean energy can be generated, but when it’s generated. The variable output of solar power is a big problem that prevents eliminating more gas and coal power plants. A large scale energy storage solution that’s cheap and efficient would be a tremendous win.

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Used LiFePO4 Battery Fiasco

After more thorough testing of the used LiFePO4 battery that I described in my previous post, I’ve reached the sad conclusion that it’s essentially a worthless piece of junk. Encouraged by stories from and other sources, I’d hoped this used battery might still have about 80% the capacity of new. Even the battery’s own datasheet said an ‘end of life’ battery still retains 60% of the original capacity. But I measured the usable capacity at just 27-29% of original, and with a collection of other battery problems too. It’s basically unusable. What a disappointment. It’s an expensive lesson in the risks of buying used equipment.

The trouble began immediately after I unpacked the battery and measured 0 volts at the terminals. It was completely discharged, to the point where the low-voltage cutoff of the built-in Battery Management System had disconnected the cells. The seller said it was at 12.8V prior to shipping a week earlier, and it definitely shouldn’t have self-discharged so much over just one week.

I was able to recharge the battery with an Accucel 6 charger in LiFe mode, waking up the BMS and charging the battery to about 95-100%. But it reached a “full” charging voltage much too soon, at about 14.2V after putting in only 13 Ah. That’s roughly 29% of the battery’s nominal 45 Ah capacity. Not a good sign. Also worrying: the built-in BMS appeared to kick in at a charging voltage about 14.2-14.3V and disconnect the cells to prevent overcharging, which caused my charger to report an error. This contradicts the battery’s datasheet which says 14.6V is normal and the BMS won’t kick in until 15.6V.

After disconnecting the charger, I measured an open circuit voltage of 13.664V. Over the next day the voltage continuously dropped, though the rate of decay eventually slowed. At 20 hours post-charging, the voltage had dropped to 13.349V, or 3.337V per cell. According to this chart, this indicates a state of charge greater than 90%.

To perform a capacity test, I connected a 12V LED light with a measured current draw of 0.94 amps, and timed how long the battery survived. The setup is shown in the title photo above. During the test I also periodically measured the battery voltage. The battery lasted 13.5 hours, for a total measured capacity of 12.7 Ah or 29% of nominal capacity. That’s a very disappointing result, but at least it was consistent with the charging results. Here’s the discharge curve:

Not only did I get just 12.7 Ah instead of closer to 45 Ah, but there was another problem too. Five minutes after I measured the last data point (806 minutes, 12.259V) the battery completely shut off. This must have been the low-voltage cutoff of the BMS again, except it happened much too soon. The datasheet says a normal discharge continues down to 10.0V, and the BMS doesn’t engage until 8.8V! The discharge curve is very steep at this point, so I probably only missed out on about 5% of extra capacity, but it’s another indicator that things weren’t working correctly.

As a final test, the next day I recharged the battery a second time at just 1 amp charging current – C/45. That’s a very conservative rate, because I wanted to be sure I hadn’t somehow failed to actually charge the battery fully on the first time around. The results were even worse than before, and I only managed to put 12.1 Ah into the battery before it reached full, 27% of nominal capacity. After disconnecting the charger, I measured an open circuit voltage of 13.6V, which indicates a fully charged battery. So there’s no mistake… it’s just a dud.

So now I’m left with a $167.50 used battery with vastly less than the expected capacity, apparent BMS problems, and a possible self-discharge problem too. This seller didn’t make any specific performance claims other than that the battery came from “well-maintained equipment”, but I don’t think they intended to sell a battery in this poor state. If they were aware of the battery’s problems, I think an honest seller would have thrown it in the trash, or perhaps sold it with a warning like “for parts only – battery does not hold a full charge”.

I’ve contacted the seller to request a return or a refund. No reply yet. My strategy in such things is to explain nicely what I’m seeing, and ask politely for help, always working from the assumption that it’s a good faith misunderstanding. In my experience this works much better than angry rants and accusations.

Have you ever bought a used battery? How did it work out? What information might you look for when choosing a used battery to avoid problems like this? Leave a comment and share your thoughts.

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Used Lithium Battery Mysteries

My used LiFePO4 battery (lithium iron phosphate) arrived yesterday. Who buys used batteries? I do, apparently. I’ve been putting the battery through its paces to see how much of the original capacity of 45 Ah / 675 Wh still remains. Unfortunately it looks like my battery may be a dud.

Where are the Battery Terminals?

My first challenge was simply connecting anything to the battery terminals. This battery is supposed to use female threaded button terminals, which are basically just M6 x 10mm steel bolts that screw into the battery, but they weren’t included. The only thing I have to work with are 6mm female threaded openings. For taking measurements with a multimeter, I can hold the probes to the terminals, but there’s no way to make a permanent connection for charging or discharging.

With all the local stores closed and everyone in California ordered to stay home, I can’t just run out to Home Depot for M6 bolts. All of my attempts at jury-rigged connections failed. I finally had to resort to sticking a loose piece of wire into the terminal opening, but it’s a poor connection.

Battery Charging

Initially I was unable to measure any voltage at all between the battery terminals. 0 volts! I contacted the seller, who reported that the battery was at 12.8V when he shipped it a week ago. So what happened?

Knowing that the battery has an integrated BMS (battery management system), I suspected that the BMS might have disconnected the internal battery cells to protect them due to over-discharging or some other fault. From the back of a closet I dug out an old Accucel 6 battery charger from my RC aircraft days, and used it to feed in constant current at 0.5A. The battery behaved like it was charging, starting at a voltage around 10V and quickly ramping up to 11-12V. But whenever I disconnected the charger and tried to measure the open circuit battery voltage, I saw something around 6V that quickly died away to zero.

I decided that maybe I just hadn’t charged the battery enough to convince the BMS to reconnect, so I kept going. After putting about 500 mAh into the battery (about 1% of the battery’s theoretical capacity), the BMS “woke up” and I could measure a stable open circuit voltage at the terminals. I was also able to power some 12V LED light strips for about 15 minutes, until I grew bored of the test.

Something is puzzling here, though. LiFePO4 batteries have a very low self-discharge rate. They can last for months on the shelf. If my battery was at 12.8V last week, it shouldn’t have dropped so far in a week to engage the BMS low-voltage cutoff of 10V or less. Hmm.

I continued charging the battery with my Accucel 6, now at a current of 3.8 amps. All went well for a few hours, and I put about 13 Ah into the battery, which should be about 25-30% of its capacity. But then the voltage quickly shot up to around 14.2V and the Accucel aborted with a “connection break” error. I checked all the connections, and tried to resume charging several times, but kept getting “connection break” or “over voltage” errors. The battery wasn’t actually over voltage, and the spec sheet says to use constant current until the voltage reaches 14.6V, then hold that voltage until current decreases to 1 amp.

No matter what I tried, I couldn’t get the battery to charge any further. Connection problem? Charger problem? Battery problem? Starting from a dead battery, it can’t have been full already after putting in only 13 Ah. Perhaps my poor terminal connection is the cause. Or maybe it’s the Accucel 6, which at 3.8 amps and 14.2 volts is operating beyond its 50 watt rating. Or maybe it’s the 15 volt power supply for the Accucel 6. I’m not sure whether it uses DC-to-DC conversion to enable charging batteries at a voltage higher than the supply voltage.

Without a way to reliably charge the battery to 100%, I can’t do a discharge test, so I can’t measure the capacity of the battery.


Defeated for the moment, I gave up on charging and disconnected the charger. I measured the open circuit voltage at 13.664V, or 3.416V/cell. According to the state of charge table for LiFePO4 cells, that indicates it was more than 90% charged, close to 100%. But how could that be, after starting from zero and only putting in 25-30%? A few minutes later I measured the voltage again, and it had dropped a tenth of a volt. Even with nothing connected to the battery, the voltage kept dropping over the next few hours:

initial reading 13.664 V
13 minutes 13.530 V
28 minutes 13.478 V
43 minutes 13.452 V
63 minutes 13.430 V
85 minutes 13.415 V
106 minutes 13.405 V
132 minutes 13.401 V
186 minutes 13.390 V
266 minutes 13.381 V
360 minutes 13.372 V

Divide these numbers by 4 to get the cell voltage, and compare them to this LiFePO4 SOC data. Is this normal? Maybe I need to wait a few days to see how much further the voltage drops, before I can be sure.

I’m guessing this battery may have an internal short circuit somewhere that’s causing it to discharge even when it’s sitting unused and disconnected. This would explain why my open circuit voltage measurements are falling so quickly, and why the battery dropped from 12.8V to below the low-voltage cutoff during a week of shipping time. If I’m right, unfortunately that makes the battery a useless $167.50 lump of lithium and plastic.

Is there a better explanation here? Maybe I’ve overlooked something? If you have experience with deep cycle batteries, especially lithium iron phosphate batteries, please leave a comment and share your thoughts.

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